The Complete Guide to Peak ATP

What is Peak ATP?

Peak ATP® is a clinically-researched, patented form of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) disodium that is identical in structure to human ATP.

Research has shown that supplementation with Peak ATP may improve athletic performance and body composition by increasing muscular excitability, blood flow and recovery.[1]

Studies note that Peak ATP® is effective after a single dose (400mg) for increasing the ratio of muscle activation and power output during high-intensity exercise, and may also help prevent performance drop-off as training goes on..

How Does Peak ATP Work?

ATP serves as the “cellular currency” of energy production in the body. It is constantly being used and regenerated in cells via cellular respiration. 

Figure 74–5. Structure of ATP.[2]

Each day the human body creates and burns about as much ATP as its own body weight.[2]

Beyond its role in producing usable energy for cells, ATP also serves as an important extracellular signaling molecule, acting as a neurotransmitter in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Furthermore, ATP (and its derivative adenosine) are involved in:

  • Muscle contraction
  • Vasodilation
  • Cardiac function
  • Platelet function
  • Liver glycogen metabolism

How Does ATP Produce Energy?

ATP has three phosphate groups (hence the “tri-phosphate” name) in each molecule. 

When one one of these phosphate groups is removed (“cleaved”), a tremendous amount of energy is released.

The body in turn uses this energy to perform a wide range of biological processes including:

  • Muscle contraction
  • DNA and RNA synthesis
  • Transportation of nutrients (amino acids and fatty acids) into and out of cells
  • Communication between cells

As this energy is used up, the body must create more ATP to meet demand. 

Under normal circumstances, this process happens seamlessly, meaning your body can easily produce enough ATP to keep up with the demands of regular tasks -- unloading groceries, walking the dog, folding laundry, etc.

However, intense physical activity (resistance-training, sprinting, etc.) creates a tremendous demand for ATP.

Since skeletal muscle tissue only stores a limited amount of ATP at any one time, and intense exercise consumes high amounts of it, your body has to rely on other substrates to generate ATP after a few seconds.

Research indicates that endogenous muscle stores of ATP are capable of supporting maximal work for a max of 1–2 seconds, after which intercellular phosphocreatine kicks in to supply additional “fast-acting” ATP, which lasts all of 2–7 seconds.[8]

Increasing muscle’s ability to rapidly regenerate ATP (and thereby stave off decrements in performance) is one of the primary reasons many individuals supplement with creatine monohydrate.

Many individuals also consume a carbohydrate-rich meal pre workout or sip on an intra workout supplement during training to make sure there is a steady supply of blood glucose to support energy production and delay the onset of fatigue.

However, these processes are varying orders of magnitude slower than pulling from a pool of already existing ATP due to the fact that extra reactions have to be performed in order to get what the cells need to keep performing at a high level -- ATP.

For instance, it is quicker to generate ATP from phosphocreatine than it is glucose, and it’s faster to create ATP from glucose than it is fatty acids.

This led sports scientists to examine whether or not it is possible to supplement with an exogenous (outside source) of ATP, which effectively cuts out the “middle man” in the energy production process (phosphocreatine, glucose, oxygen) by supplying the body with a bioidentical form of ATP.

Unfortunately, the vast majority of oral ATP supplements on the market have come up short in research (at least in humans anyway) due to a lack of bioavailability (even using doses as high as 5 grams).[3,4,5,6]

Peak ATP, however, is a form of orally supplemented ATP shown in human studies to increase ATP levels in the body and boost exercise performance.

Let’s now take a look at the work done on Peak ATP and see how it may benefit you during training.

Benefits of Peak ATP

Increases Muscle Torque Output

The initial study investigating the potential ergogenic effects of Peak ATP sought to determine whether a 400mg dose of Peak ATP would improve force output and reduce fatigue in resistance-trained individuals.[7]

16 healthy participants (8 male and 8 female) ages 21–34 years enrolled in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using a crossover design. 

Following is a graph showing the supplementation and training protocol used during the trial.[7]

For each of the trials, participants consumed their assigned capsules (placebo or Peak ATP) for 15 days (one in the morning before dinner and one at night before dinner). Subjects receiving the Peak ATP treatment were receiving 200mg Peak ATP per capsule for a daily total of 400mg. 

After the supplementation period, the participants reported to the laboratory for testing following a 12-hour overnight fast. 

The reason researchers used a 400 mg/d dose was that previous research using a dose of 225 mg Peak ATP per day failed to improve bench press strength compared with the placebo group [6]

During the course of each of the trials (placebo and Peak ATP), participants were instructed to refrain from vigorous exercise for three days before reporting to the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast. 

“Light” exercise (stretching and/or mild aerobic exercise lasting less than 45 minutes) was allowed during this pre-study period. At this time, a blood sample was obtained. 

Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated during the study, and researchers also tracked body composition for “research purposes only” using BodPod.

After an overnight fast, subjects were tested for strength and fatigue — consisting of three sets of 50 maximal knee extensions (talk about a muscle burn!) — at baseline and after 15 days of supplementation. 

Following the 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed over (“switched”), so those who had been taking placebo now took PEAK ATP® and vice versa.

Researchers collected measurements of high peak torque, low peak torque, and torque fatigue of the leg muscles over the three exercise sets.

Supplementation with 400mg Peak ATP led to a significant increase in low peak torque and a trend toward a decrease in torque fatigue across the 3 working sets. Results are displayed in the following figure[7]:

What this means is that supplementation with Peak ATP (according to this study) may help you maintain a higher level of output for a longer duration during training and experience less of a dropoff in performance the deeper you get into a workout.

Improves Blood Flow

As we mentioned above, ATP can enhance vasodilation, and as a result, blood flow.

In addition to improving exercise performance, researchers wanted to know if supplementing with Peak ATP could increase blood flow above what is naturally obtained from exercise, since physical activity in and of itself increases blood flow to the working muscles.

To determine this, researchers conducted a batch of animal and human studies.

Animal models using a human equivalent dose of 1,000mg and 1,600mg exhibited the most pronounced increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period.[9]

During this same study, humans were also studied using the previously researched dose of 400mg Peak ATP.

For the 12-week pilot study, 12 resistance-trained males (age 23.7 ± 3.6 years; height 179.0 ± 1.0 cm; weight 87.3 ± 6.1 kg) were given 400mg of Peak ATP daily 30 minutes before breakfast for 12 weeks. 

To determine blood flow during in working muscles, subjects performed an exercise test consisting of 3 sets of 20 contractions at 50% of the subject’s 1-RM).[9]

Volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery were measured using ultrasound at rest before taking the supplement, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise test.

On testing days, subjects ingested the Peak ATP supplement 30 minutes prior to the bicep curl tes.

Blood flow measurements were taken at weeks 0 (baseline), 1, 4, 8, and 12. 

Major findings from the study were:

  • Week 1: Increases in blood flow at 0-min post exercise (p < 0.01) and at 3-min post exercise (p = 0.07) compared to control week (week 0). This increase in blood flow at week 1 was concomitant with an increase in brachial dilation at 0 min post exercise (p < 0.01).
  • At weeks 8 & 12: researchers noted an increase in blood flow at 0-min post exercise (p = 0.07 and p<0.01, respectively) and at 3-min post exercise at 8 weeks (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) relative to the control week.

    This again was in conjunction with increases in vasodilation 30 min after ATP treatment at rest at week 8 (p < 0.05) and 6-min post exercise at 12 weeks (p < 0.01).

We all know that one by-product of greater blood flow is bigger muscle pumps (which increases cellular swelling and may promote muscle growth), but another by-product of this enhanced blood flow could improve removal of metabolic waste products (such as lactate and urea) generated from muscle contractions.

Additionally, improved circulation also facilitates greater delivery of nutrients (amino acids, glucose, etc.) as well as oxygen to exercising muscles, which can help sustain performance and promote recovery.

In the conclusion, researchers note that “the exact mechanism whereby ATP increases blood flow during post-exercise recovery periods remains unknown.”

As such, more studies are needed to elucidate this exact mechanism.

Additionally, some limitations of this study include the lack of control group (a group of people who only received a placebo during the 12 weeks) and a stronger control of other confounding variables such as potential differences in exercise habits outside of the trial or baseline dietary habits and dietary supplement use in male subjects participating in the trial.

Enhances Lean Mass

The next study to be performed using Peak ATP was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and diet-controlled, parallel groups with repeated measures study design.[10] 

21 resistance-trained males were randomized to receive either 400 mg of PEAK ATP® per day or placebo for 12 weeks. 

Both groups were assigned the same 12-week periodized resistance training protocol, consisting of:.

  • Regular Training Phase 1 (8 weeks): consisted of a 3x per week nonlinear periodized resistance-training program
  • Overreaching Phase (2 weeks): Training volume and frequency were increased to the point of overreaching. F
  • Taper (2 weeks): Training volume and frequency were decreased. 

Researchers measured muscle mass, strength and power at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12.

2 weeks before the start of the 12-week study, subjects met with a registered dietician and were placed on a diet consisting of 25% protein, 50% carbohydrates, and 25% fat. 

Subjects followed their respective meal plan for the duration of the trial and continued diet counseling was on an individual basis as needed throughout the study.

The primary findings of this study were that the men consuming 400 mg of Peak ATP daily exhibited greater gains in muscle mass, lean body mass, strength and power when compared to the the placebo-matched control.[10]

More specifically, supplementation with Peak ATP led to improvements in:

    • Squat & Deadlift Strength: 12.9% and 16.4% for squat and deadlift, respectively compared to the placebo group, who only realized increases of 4.4 and 8.5% for squat and deadlift, respectively. 
    • Total Strength: Peak ATP group increased strength across the 12-week trial by 12.6% (55.3 ± 6.0 kg) vs the placebo group who increased strength by 5.9% (22.4 ± 7.1 kg)
    • Peak Power: vertical jump peak power increased 15.3% with Peak ATP vs 11.5% with placebo
  • Lean Body Mass: Peak ATP group increased lean mass by 4.0 kg versus 2.1 kg for placebo

  • Additionally, based on the results noted during the group’s overreaching cycles, supplementation with Peak ATP appeared to attenuate reductions in muscle power and strength common with periods of overreaching.

    Now, we’re going to take these results with the proverbial “grain of salt.” The lead researcher on this study was Dr. Jacob Wilson, who has a “complicated” history with supplement research to say the least.

    Fortunately, there are other studies involving Peak ATP that can be considered, like this next one!

    Increase Post-Exercise ATP Levels

    The next double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized  study involved 42 healthy male individuals (age 18-30).[11]

    To qualify for the study, subjects had to have prior resistance training experience (min. 3 times per week for the past 6 months and have a minimum of 1 year of training experience).

    During the testing period, subjects were instructed not to train within 72 hours of the test in order to prevent any confounding variables (muscle damage, fatigue, etc.).

    Subjects were given either 400 mg of Peak ATP or placebo for 2 weeks prior to testing.

    Following the 14-day loading period (day 15), subjects consumed 400 mg of either Peak ATP or a placebo 30 minutes prior to repeating the same sprinting bout they had performed at baseline testing. 

    During the sprint bout (10 rounds of 6-second springs on an ergometer), muscle activation and excitability and Wingate test peak power were measured. Additionally, researchers also gathered measurements on ATP and exercise metabolites.

    Primary findings of the study were that supplementation with Peak ATP prevented exercise-induced declines in ATP and its metabolite.  

    Additionally, Peak ATP supplementation also enhanced peak power and muscular excitability, which would be beneficial for sports requiring repeated high-intensity sprinting bouts (such as football, basketball, soccer, etc.).

    Interestingly, while Peak ATP supplementation appears to improve performance, researchers still aren’t 100% sure how it does so:

    “Though the exact mechanism of oral ATP absorption is still not fully understood, ATP and its metabolites may stimulate intracellular ATP by interacting with specific ATP and adeno- sine receptors on cell surfaces through a signaling effect.”[11]

    However, the improvements in muscle excitability and metabolite clearance may have something to do with increased blood flow.[9]

    Improves Lower Body Training

    One of the more recent studies investigating Peak ATP (that also didn’t involve Dr. Wilson) involved 11 resistance-trained men (age= 27.5±5.5 yrs, weight= 83.4±9.8 kg, height= 182±0.04 cm) who completed two randomized, double-blind trials.

    Subjects received either 400mg Peak ATP or placebo 30 minutes prior to an exercise test consisting of 4 sets of half-squats until momentary muscular failure at 80% of the 1 repetition maximum with 2 minutes of recovery between sets. 

    Researchers collected data on the total number of repetitions performed as well as blood pressure, heart rate, blood lactate, and oxygen consumption.[12]

    At the conclusion of the study, researchers noted that a one-time dose of Peak ATP improved performance, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure during lower body resistance exercise. 

    This study suggests that supplementing with Peak ATP prior to a fatiguing, high-volume leg day may help gym goers lift more weight.

    Two possible mechanisms suggested for Peak ATP’s ability to improve performance are:

    • Via the effects of extracellular ATP on vascular tissue.

      During exercise, ATP binds to the P2Y receptor in the endothelial tissue, which induces production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide by endothelial cells. This ultimately leads to more blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery to working muscles.

    • The effects of extracellular ATP on muscle excitability. Basically, ATP supplementation may delay the reduction of calcium release during muscle contractions, maximizing muscle strength production by greater interactions of actin and myosin filaments

    Reduces Blood Pressure

    The final study, to date, conducted with Peak ATP sought to determine the autonomic modulation and blood pressure following supplementation with Peak ATP in hypertensive women.[13]

    45% of adults in the US have hypertension and having hypertension is known to significantly increase your risk for heart disease and stroke, both of which are among the leading causes of death in the United States.[14]

    The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. Participants completed two exercise sessions in the lab, with each one being separated by seven days. 

    To ensure chronobiological control (and limit confounding factors), all experimental trials were performed at the same period of the day.

    11 hypertensive women (age, 61.8 ± 5.0 years) completed the trial and received either 400mg of Peak ATP or placebo 30 minutes before performing 30 minutes of cardio (aerobic exercise at 70%–75% of maximum heart rate).[14]

    Researchers assess autonomic modulation by tracking heart rate variability (HRV) during rest and recovery (immediately post exercise until 30 min of recovery). Blood pressure was recorded at rest, immediately post-exercise, post-10, post-20 and post-30 min after exercise. 

    The primary finding of the study was that a single dose of Peak ATP reduced systolic blood pressure after aerobic exercise compared to placebo.

    At the conclusion of the study researchers also noted that ATP supplementation potentiated the parasympathetic recovery after exercise.[14]

    Basically, ATP supplementation encouraged faster recovery of HRV following exercise by increasing parasympathetic modulation.

    These findings bear importance not only for regular exercisers looking to improve recovery following training, but the average individual who may not train consistently, yet still wants to support cardiovascular health.

    Is Peak ATP Safe?

    Peak ATP® is not a stimulant, and therefore, does not adversely affect heart rate or blood pressure. 

    The ingredient has been studied multiple times in humans and found to elucidate no adverse reactions.

    Peak ATP is self-affirmed GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) for use in functional food, bars and powders.

    What is the Recommended Dose of Peak ATP?

    The recommended dose of Peak ATP® is 400 mg, consumed once daily 30-60 minutes prior to exercise. 

    On non-training days, you may consume one serving of Peak ATP ~20-30 minutes prior to your first meal of the day.[15]


    Peak ATP is an exogenous form of bioavailable ATP shown in research to:

    • Increase strength and power during high-intensity workouts
    • Enhance lean body mass
    • Improve recovery during and between workouts
    • Increase oxygen delivery while improving blood flow
    • Reduce overall fatigue


    2. Zimmerman, J. J., von Saint André-von Arnim, A., & McLaughlin, J. (2011). Chapter 74 - Cellular Respiration. In B. P. Fuhrman & J. J. B. T.-P. C. C. (Fourth E. Zimmerman (Eds.) (pp. 1058–1072). Saint Louis: Mosby.
    3. Arts, I.C., Coolen, E.J., Bours, M.J. et al. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9, 16 (2012).
    4. Coolen EJ, Arts IC, Bekers O, Vervaet C, Bast A, Dagnelie PC. Oral bioavailability
      of ATP after prolonged administration
      . Br J Nutr. 2011;105:357–66
    5. Herda TJ, Ryan ED, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Effects of a supplement designed to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and endurance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5:3.
    6. Jordan AN, Jurca R, Abraham EH, Salikhova A, Mann JK, Morss GM, Church TS, Lucia A, Earnest CP. Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:983–90
    7. Rathmacher et al.: Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:48.
    8. Hochachka PW, Bianconcini MS, Parkhouse WS, Dobson GP: On the role of actomyosin ATPases in regulation of ATP turnover rates during intense exercise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991, 88:5764–5768
    9. Jäger, R., Roberts, M.D., Lowery, R.P. et al. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 11, 28 (2014).
    10. Wilson et al.: Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutrition & Metabolism 2013 10:57
    11. Purpura M, et al. Oral Adenosine-50-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Repeated Sprint Bout. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2017
    12. Frietas et al. A single dose of oral ATP supplementation improves performance and physiological response during lower body resistance exercise in recreational resistance trained males. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017.
    13. Freitas et al. Oral adenosine 5′-triphosphate supplementation improved hemodynamic and autonomic parameters after exercise in hypertensive women. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation 2018, 14(4): 671-679 
    14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death, 1999–2017. CDC WONDER Online Database. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018. Accessed January 7, 2019.

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